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4 Types of Belgian Shepherd Dog Breeds

Written by aslmad.yaz

While sometimes mislabeled as a singular breed, there are actually four Belgian Shepherd breeds, each defined by unique characteristics. While all of the Belgian Shepherd breeds share remarkable intelligence and unwavering loyalty, each Belgian Shepherd is celebrated for its own distinctions. Breed enthusiasts and pet owners alike hold a deep appreciation for these distinctive dogs, valuing them as both cherished companions and skilled working animals.

Belgian Shepherd Breeds

The Belgian Malinois, perhaps the most well-known of the four Belgian Shepherds, is prized for its exceptional intelligence and versatility. The Tervuren stands out with its striking, long, fawn coat and skilled herding abilities. The Belgian Groenendael, also called the Belgian Sheepdog, boasts a long, black coat and easygoing temperament. Lastly, the Laekenois — with its wiry coat and affectionate personality — is a versatile working dog and household companion.

Read on to learn more about the unique characteristics of the Belgian Shepherd breeds.

Belgian Malinois

Belgian Malinois, one of four Belgian Shepherd breeds
(Photo credit: Anita Kot | Getty Images)

The Belgian Malinois, widely recognized for its exceptional intelligence and unwavering work ethic, is a versatile and highly capable breed. A recent study even suggested the Belgian Malinois may be one of the smartest dog breeds. This pooch achieved the highest score in cognitive tests, earning the title of the most intelligent dog according to scientists from the University of Helsinki, Finland. It goes without saying the Malinois is highly trainable. With a keen and alert demeanor, these loyal and protective pups excel as working dogs in a variety of roles. This includes police work, search and rescue, conservation, and even service dogs.

Their popularity has surged in recent years, thanks in part to their prominent presence in law enforcement operations. Perhaps because of this lineage and the development of aggressive behavior, they’ve also earned a reputation for being dangerous. There is even a possibility that these dogs may end up on various banned dog lists. However, it’s always important to remember that early socialization and training are largely responsible for the behavior of adult dogs.

Beyond their professional roles, Belgian Malinois also make wonderful family companions for those who can provide the mental and physical stimulation they crave. They are incredibly affectionate toward their family members, but their protective nature may make them reserved to strangers. Active pet parents may find this breed compatible with their energetic lifestyles.

Belgian Tervuren

Tervuren Dog portrait in snowy winter
(Photo credit: K_Thalhofer | Getty Images)

The Belgian Tervuren, known for its long, fawn coat, is a highly intelligent and athletic breed. Less well known than the Malinois, the Tervuren may sometimes be mistaken for a long-haired German Shepherd. Alert and affectionate, Tervurens make loyal companions and skilled working dogs. While they share similarities with the Belgian Malinois, such as intelligence and versatility, Tervurens often exhibit a more reserved and gentle demeanor.

They excel in herding and make excellent candidates for service and therapy work. While favored for various working roles, they are also popular in dog sports and as family pets. These easygoing pups are not as commonly seen in military and police work compared to the Malinois. However, the Belgian Tervuren’s popularity has been steadily growing, appreciated by those who admire their beauty, intellect, and charm.

Belgian Groenendael

Belgian Shepherd Groenendael
(Photo credit: levente bodo | Getty Images)

While there are four breeds under the grouping of “Belgian Shepherd,” the Belgian Groenendael or Belgian Sheepdog is the one most commonly associated with the title. Named after the village where the breed originated, the Groenendael is easily recognized by its silky, black coat. With a personality that showcases intelligence, steadiness, and loyalty, the Groenendael is nothing short of impressive.

While similar to other Belgian Shepherd varieties, Groenendaels often show a more reserved and protective nature. In the First World War, Groenendaels served the Belgian Army by locating injured soldiers and delivering important messages.

They’ve earned a reputation as both excellent herding and working dogs, as well as family companions. While the Groenendael may not be as well-known as the Malinois or Tervuren, this breed has become more well-known in recent years. While all of the Belgian Shepherd varieties share a strong bond with their owners and an aptitude for learning, the Groenendaels stand out with their elegant appearance, steady character, and adaptability.

Belgian Laekenois

Belgian Laekenois in fall
(Photo credit: Kathryn Doomy | Getty Images)

Intelligent and eager to please, the Belgian Laekenois can be recognized by its wiry coat. With a temperament that’s both alert and affectionate, the Laekenois is an ideal choice for pet parents looking for a loyal and watchful companion. It’s also worth noting that these pups get along well with children.

This breed is one of the rarest among Belgian Shepherds, known for its unique appearance and unwavering loyalty. While they’re affectionate with all members of their family, they usually become entirely devoted to one particular person.

It is vital for pet parents to provide adequate mental and physical stimulation. Their versatility in herding and guarding roles also makes them suitable for families or individuals looking for an intelligent and devoted working dog, capable of adapting to various tasks and environments.

Belgian Shepherd Training Tips

Training Belgian Shepherds can be a rewarding experience with the right approach. First and foremost, these dogs thrive on mental stimulation, so it’s essential to engage their minds with challenging tasks. Incorporating obedience training, agility exercises, and puzzle toys into their routine will not only keep them mentally sharp but also help them expend their energy constructively.

Consistency is key when training Belgian Shepherds. Use positive reinforcement techniques such as treats, praise, and play to reward desired behaviors, and be patient and persistent. These dogs are quick learners but may test boundaries, so establishing clear rules and limits from an early age is crucial to a well-behaved Belgian Shepherd.

Socialization is equally vital. Expose your Belgian Shepherd to various environments, people, and other animals to ensure they develop into well-adjusted and confident companions. Early and ongoing socialization helps them become more adaptable and less prone to fear or aggression. It’s important to remember that while training is an ongoing process, Belgian Shepherds thrive on a strong bond with their owners. Building trust and a positive relationship is as critical as teaching commands


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